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Taoism by Laozi
86 ? ?, CN
BC 0604
Buddhism by Buddha
977 ? Lumbini, Kapilavastu, NP
BC 0563
Confucianism by Confucius
86 ? Qufu, Shandong, CN
BC 0551(09/28)
Western philosophy by Socrates
30 ? ?, GR
BC 0469
Platonic Academy by Plato
30 ? Athens, GR
BC 0428
Aristotelianism by Aristotle
30 ? Stagira, GR
BC 0384
Early Christianity by Paul
90 ? Tarsus, Mersin, TR
0005
Neoplatonism by Plotinus
20 ? Tell El-Ruba, Kha, EG
0204
Western Christianity by Augustine
213 ? Souk Ahras, Souk Ahras, DZ
0354(11/13)
? by Patrick
44 ? Banna Venta Berniae, England, GB
0373
Order of Saint Benedict by Benedict
39 ? Norcia, Perugia, Umbria, IT
0480
Islam by Muhammad
96 ? ?, SA
0570
see Thomas Aquinas below
Avicennism by Avicenna
9989 ? Bukhara, Bukhara, UZ
0980
Ontological argument by Anselm
39 ? Aosta, Aosta Valley, IT
1033
? by Ghazali
98 ? Tus, Khorasan, IR
1058
Scholaticism by Pierre Abelard
33 ? Le Pallet, FR
1079
? by Thomas Becket
44 ? Cheapside, London, England, GB
1118
Averroism by Averroes
34 ? Córdoba, Andalusia, ES
1126
? by Moses Maimonides
34 ? Córdoba, Andalusia, ES
1135(03/30) - 1204(12/13)
Franciscan by Francis of Assisi
39 ? Assisi, IT
1182
modern Scientific method by Roger Bacon(European advocate)
44 ? Ilchester, Somerset, England, GB
1214
Scholaticism by Thomas Aquinas
39 ? Roccasecca, Frosinone, Lazio, IT
1225
Scotism by John Duns Scotus
44 ? Duns, Berwickshire, Scotland, GB
1266
Occam's razor by William of Ockham
44 ? Ockham, Surrey, England, GB
1288
Lollardy by John Wycliffe
44 ? Hipswell, Richmondshire, North Yorkshire, England, GB
1320
Hussite Wars by Jan Hus
42 ? Husinec, Prachatice, CS
1372
The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis
49 ? Kirchplatz, St. Marien 11, Kempen, Viersen, North Rhine-Westphalia, DE
1380
? by Desiderius Erasmus
31 ? Rotterdam, NL
1466(10/27)
Protestant Reformation by Martin Luther
49 ? Lutherstadt Eisleben, Mansfeld-Südharz, Saxony-Anhalt, DE
1483(11/10)(Wittenburg door 1517(10/31))
Reformation in Switzerland by Huldrych Zwingli
41 ? Wildhaus, Wahlkreis Toggenburg, Saint Gallen, CH
1484(01/01)
English Reformation by Thomas Cranmer
44 ? Aslockton, Nottinghamshire, England, GB
1489(07/02)
Society of Jesus by Ignatius of Loyola
34 ? Loyola, Azpeitia, Guipúzcoa, ES
1491(10/13)
see Ignatius of Loyola above
Lutheranism by Philipp Melanchthon
49 ? Bretten, Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, DE
1497(02/16)
Society of Jesus by Francis Xavier
34 ? Javier, Navarre, ES
1506(04/07)
Calvinism by Jean Calvin
33 ? Noyon, Picardie, Oise, FR
1509(07/10)
Presbyterianism by John Knox
44 ? Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland, GB
1510
see Thérèse de Lisieux below
? by Giordano Bruno
39 ? Nola, Campania, Naples, IT
1548
Pilgrim (Plymouth Colony) by William Brewster
44 ? Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, GB
1566
Christian mysticism by Jakob Böhme
49 ? Görlitz, DE
1575(04/24)
New England Puritan by John Cotton
44 ? ?, England, GB
1585(12/04)
see Roger Bacon above
Social contract by Thomas Hobbes
44 ? Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England, GB
1588(04/05)
Scientific revolution by René Descartes
33 ? Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, FR
1596(03/31)
North American Baptist by Roger Williams
44 ? London, England, GB
1603(12/21)
Scientific method by Blaise Pascal
33 ? Clermont-Ferrand, FR
1623(06/19)
y=f(x)
Religious Society of Friends by George Fox
44 ? George Fox Lane, Fenny Drayton, Leicestershire, England, GB
1624(07/??)
Classical liberalism, Age of Enlightenment, and Empiricism by John Locke
44 ? Wrington, North Somerset, England, GB
1632(08/29)
Rationalism by Baruch Spinoza
31 ? Amsterdam, NL
1632(11/24) - 1677(02/21)
Infinitesimal calculus and Leibniz's notation by Gottfried von Leibniz
49 ? Leipzig, Saxony, DE
1646(07/01) - 1716(11/14)
? by Cotton Mather
1 02205? Boston, MA
1663(02/12)
Idealism by George Berkeley
353 ? Dysart Castle, Thomastown, County Kilkenny, IE
1685(03/12)
The New Church by Emanuel Swedenborg
46 ? Stockholm, SE
1688(02/08)
Methodism by John Wesley
44 ? Epworth, Lincolnshire, England, GB
1703(06/28)
First Great Awakening by Jonathan Edwards
1 06016 East Windsor, CT
1703(10/05)
Skepticism by David Hume
44 ? Edinburgh, Scotland, GB
1711(04/26)
Lutheran Church in the United States by Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg
49 ? Einbeck, Northeim, Lower Saxony, DE
1711(09/06)
Encyclopédie by Denis Diderot
33 ? Langres, FR
1713(10/05)
Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant
7 ? Kaliningrad, Russia, SU
1724(04/22)
Weimar Classicism by Johann Gottfried Herder
48 ? Mohrungen, Ostróda, PL
1744(08/25)
Utilitarianism by Jeremy Bentham
44 ? Spitalfields, London, England, GB
1748(02/15)
German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte
49 ? Rammenau, Saxony, DE
1762(05/19)
See Johann Gottlieb Fichte above See Johann Gottlieb Fichte above
Hermeneutics by Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher
48 ? Breslau, Lower Silesia, PL
1768(11/21)
German idealism by Georg Wilhelm Freidrich Hegel
49 ? Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, DE
1770(08/27)
German idealism by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
49 ? Leonberg, Böblingen, Baden-Württemberg, DE
1775(01/27)
Unitarianiasm by William Ellery Channing
1 02840 Newport, RI
1780(04/07)
The World as Will and Representation by Arthur Schopenhauer
48 ? Danzig, PL
1788(02/22)
Sociology and Positivism by Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte
33 ? Montpellier, Hérault, Languedoc-Roussillon, FR
1798(01/17)
Oxford Movement by John Henry Newman
44 ? London, England, GB
1801(02/21)
Latter Day Saint movement by Brigham Young
1 05361 Whitingham, VT
1801(06/01)
See Brigham Young above see John Locke above
Latter Day Saint movement by Joseph Smith
1 05065 Sharon, VT
1805(12/23)
Existentialism by Søren Aabye Kierkegaard
45 ? Copenhagen, DK
1813(05/05)
Bahá'í Faith by Bahá'u'lláh
98 ? Tehran, IR
1817(11/12)
Classical liberalism by Herbert Spencer
44 ? Derby, East Midlands, GB
1820(04/27)
Evolution by Thomas Henry Huxley
44 ? Ealing, Middlesex, GB
1825(05/04)
? by Lyman Abbott
1 02118 Roxbury, MA
1835(12/18)
Moody Bible Institute by Dwight Lyman Moody
1 01360 Northfield, MA
1837(02/05)
Pragmatism by Charles Sanders Peirce
1 02139? Cambridge, MA
1839(09/10)
see Søren Aabye Kierkegaard above
? by William James
1 10001? Astor House, New York, NY
1842(01/11) - 1910(08/26)
Existentialism by Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
49 ? Röcken, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt, DE
1844(10/15)
Ethical movement by Felix Adler
49 ? Alzey, Hess-Darmstadt, DE
1851(08/13)
Jehovah's Witnesses by Charles Taze Russell
1 15212 Allegheny, PA
1852(02/16)
Objective idealism by Josiah Royce
1 95945? Grass Valley, CA
1855(11/20)
Phenomenology (philosophy) by Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl
42 ? Prostejov, Olomouc, CS
1859(04/08)
Intuition (Bergson) by Henri-Louis Bergson
33 ? Paris, FR
1859(10/18)
Functional psychology by John Dewey
1 05401? Burlington, VT
1859(10/20)
see Alfred North Whitehead to the left
Analytic philosophy by Alfred North Whitehead
44 ? Ramsgate, Kent, England, GB
1861(02/15)
Conservative Christianity by William Ashley Sunday
1 50010? Ames, IA
1863(11/19)
Analytic philosophy byBertrand Arthur William Russell
44 ? Trellech, Monmouthshire, Wales, GB
1872(05/18)
Reverence for Life by Albert Schweitzer
33 ? Kaysersberg, Haut-Rhin, Alsace-Lorraine, FR
1875(01/14)
see Søren Aabye Kierkegaard above
Philosophy of dialogue by Martin Buber
43 ? Vienna, AT
1878(02/08) - 1965(06/13)
Omega Point by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
33 ? Orcines, Puy-de-Dôme Auvergne, FR
1881(05/01) - 1955(04/10)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights by Jacques Maritain
33 ? Paris, FR
1882(11/18) - 1973(04/28)
Existentialism by Karl Theodor Jaspers
49 ? Oldenburg, Lower Saxony, DE
1883(02/23) - 1969(02/26)
Neo-orthodoxy by Karl Barth
41 ? Basel, CH
1886(05/10) - 1968(12/10)
Christian existentialism by Paul Johannes Tillich
48 ? Starzeddel, Gubin, PL
1886(08/20)
Logical positivism and Ordinary language philosophy by Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein
43 ? Vienna, AT
1889(04/26)
Being and Time by Martin Heidegger
49 ? Meßkirch, Sigmaringen, Baden-Württemberg, DE
1889(09/26)
see Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein above
Nation of Islam by Elijah Muhammad
1 31082 Sandersville, GA
1897(10/07)
Optimism by Norman Vincent Peale
1 45307 Bowersville, OH
1898(05/31)
Ordinary language philosophy by Gilbert Ryle
44 ? Brighton, East Sussex, GB
1900(08/19)
Marxism by Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre
33 ? Paris, FR
1905(06/21)
see Alfred North Whitehead above
Confessing Church by Dietrich Bonhoeffer
48 ? Breslau, Lower Silesia, PL
1906(02/04)
Analytic philosophy by Willard Van Orman Quine
1 44309? Akron, OH
1908(06/25)
? by John Langshaw Austin
44 ? Lancaster, England, GB
1911(03/26)
? by Thomas James Merton
33 ? Prades, FR
1915(01/31)
Traditionalist conservatism by Russell Kirk
1 48170 Plymouth, MI
1918(10/19)
Postmodernism by Jean-François Lyotard
33 ? Versailles, FR
1924(08/10)
Social theory by Michel Foucault
33 ? Poitiers, FR
1926(10/15)
Anarchy, State, and Utopia by Robert Nozick
1 10001? Brooklyn, NY
1938(11/16)
? by Joan of Arc
33 ? Domrémy-la-Pucelle, Vosges, Lorraine, FR
1412
Christian Science by Mary Morse Baker Eddy
1 03304 Bow, NH
1821(07/16)
? by Thérèse de Lisieux
33 ? Alençon, Orne, Normandy, FR
1873(01/02)

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